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#Userguide

Help FAQ

Written by Genesis
Updated by Bay & Patry
Translated into PHP by B|ackCat
Last Update: March, 2004


1. IRC client
2. User modes
3. Channels
4. Topic
5. Channel modes
6. Special channels on Undernet
7. IRC Operators
8. Abbreviations / IRC LINGO
9. The Undernet Channel Service
10. Undernet's nick policy
11. Servers
12. Basic Routing
13. Shell Guide
14. BNC
15. Scripts
16. Bots
17. DCC
18. Etiquette
19. Cookies
20. Sites



Undernet basics (How does it all work?)

Undernet Basics faq.

Since IRC can be a bit overwhelming for a first time user I shall try to explain some of the basics to you. After reading this you should be armed with all the basics you need to go and explore the wonderful net called the Undernet.


1. IRC client

One of the first things you'll need on Undernet is a good IRC client. Most people who use Windows prefer mIRC. (http://www.mirc.com/ (US) - http://www.mirc.co.uk (EU)). mIRC is fairly easy to setup. But for those having problems I'd like to recommend one of the Undernet's help channels called #mIRC.

A small mirc faq :

1. After downloading and installing start up mIRC and press ALT+O

2. A window will popup. On the left of that window you will see a tree structure. One of the first options is CONNECT. Click on connect to see the sub options. Enter your Full Name, Email Address, Nickname and an Alternative. One more note on real name: you are not obliged to enter your real name. As IRC *can* be a dangerous place it is best to hide as much personal info as you can. Then choose an Undernet server from the server listbox.

If no undernet servers are listed click the add button. :

  description : Undernet
  Irc server : irc.undernet.org (for us) or irc.eu.undernet.org (for EU users)
  ports : Usually 6667 (sometimes 7000)
  group : Undernet
  password : Don't put anything here.

Those of you who don't want to go through this can download a small file which they have to place in their mIRC folder:


Our monthly update; a fresh list of over 400 IRC servers for mIRC is available in the servers.ini file on our website. Save the file to the mIRC directory on your harddisk (c:\mirc\ or similar) and enjoy this refresh! The new IRC networks and servers will immediately be available to you from within mIRC.

Also, for Undernet's user, there is a list of servers: http://www.undernet.org/servers.php


3. Make sure your identd settings are correct.
One of the suboptions below Connect is IdentD : Click on it.
Make sure the following options are turned on :

1. Enable IdentD server
2. UserID = Choose something usually your nick, your username, whatever, max. 10 characters
3. System = Unix
4. Port = 113
5. All other settings don't need to be changed unless you have problems.
4. Click the little lightning icon to connect.

As this faq is meant for undernet basics I will only discuss the basics of irc clients. There are other clients for windows and unix/linux. eg BitchX and Xchat. If you want another client try doing a websearch : www.google.com search for IRC client.


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2. User modes.

Every user has a set of modes defining different purposes. Here they are.
+i : Invisible
When you are on invisible mode, users won't see you on a /who #<channel> or a /names #<channel> command.

+d : Deaf
When you are on deaf mode, you don't hear what is said in the channel.

+w : Wallops
When you are on wallops mode, you can see IRC Operators, sending notices to other IRC Operators.

+x : Registered
Log into your username and use this mode. You will now have a host looking like: "<username>.users.undernet.org". With that other users can't see your real host.

To set a mode type :
"/MODE <nickname> [+|-]modechars".
Modechars are +i for example: *** Patry sets mode: +i. See list above.


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3. Channels.

Once you are connected to the Undernet you probably would like to join a channel. A channel is a place where people who joined the same channel can talk. You can compare it to a room in a big building. In the building there are different rooms with different people in them. If you enter one you can talk to the people in it. It's the same with IRC with the difference being you can join multiple rooms (something which is impossible irl (irl = in real life (see 8. Abbreviatons)). To join a channel/room type in your client "/join #<channel>". Type this WITHOUT the quotes (see the start of this faq : Used signs this faq.) Please note that you can join more than one channels at a time (some servers can take up to 20 channels or more at one time). Once you join the channel you will see something like this :

  *** Now talking in #UserGuide
  *** Topic is 'Welcome to #UserGuide! E-mail: userguide@undernet.org'
  *** Set by X on Sat Dec 06 08:29:50
  **** Info #userguide [0 +q 5 +o 0 +h 2 +v 21 all]

The first line shows that you are in the channel #UserGuide. The second line shows the current topic. On your right you will see a nicklist with everyone who is in the channel. Some will have an @ before their nick, others a + : see 5. Channel modes for more info) To talk in a channel just type something and others will see.


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4. Topic

The topic of a channel is set by ops. It is used to tell joining users what the current conversation is about or should be about. When a channel is set +t only opped users can change the topic. When it is not set everyone can change it.

Example: *** Topic is 'Welcome to #UserGuide! E-mail: userguide@undernet.org ( http://www.user-com.undernet.org/userguide )'
*** Set by X on Fri Dec 13 19:11:25

When you join a channel always read the topic before asking a question. Especially for help channels as they might put a update in their topic.

To set a topic type :
"/TOPIC #<channel> <topic>"


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5. Channel modes

Every channel has a set of modes defining what can be done on that channel and what cannot be done. To see the modes on your current channel type "/channel" or double click on the channel window (mIRC)

+n : No external messages
Someone who is not in the channel cannot say something to the channel when he is NOT in the channel. When this is NOT set you can talk in the channel just as you would be in there by using "/MSG #<channel>"

+t : Only Ops can set topic
Prevents normal users changing the topic

+i : Invite only
When this mode is active a user needs an invite to join your channel. When a user is NOT invited and he tries to join your channel he see the following : #Userguide_ops can't join channel (invite only). To invite someone type: "/invite <nick> #<channel>"

+m : Moderated.
When a channel is moderated ONLY ops and voiced people (those with a + before their nick) can talk. All others will get this: #Userguide_secret Cannot send to channel. The only way to talk then is when an op sets the mode to -m OR when you receive a voice (+v)

+k : Key
When there is a key on the channel you can't join the channel without the correct key. To join a keyed channel type "/join #<channel> <key>"

+l : Limit to ...
This mode is used to set a limit on a channel. If you set the limit to 10 only 10 users will be allowed to join. If the limit has been reached in a channel and you try to join you'll see a message saying the channel is full.

+p : Private.
Makes your channel private. This means that the channel will not show in your whois and it will not show in the channels list. But the /names command WILL work, and will show all the users that are not +i.

+s : Secret.
Your channel doesn't show when someone who isn't IN your channel does a whois on you.

+b : Ban
When someone on your channel acts inappropriate you can remove that person by kicking him/her and placing a ban on his/her user@host. (user@host see further for info). For instance to ban JohnDoe which has the ip dial64.some.isp.com you would set a ban like *!*@dial64.some.isp.com (the first * means that he will not be able to avoid the ban by changing his nickname, second * means that he will not be able to avoid the ban if he changes his user id).

+r : Registered users ONLY
This is a recent mode. (Added with ircu2.10.11) When this mode is set only people who have AUTHENTICATED with X can join your channel. Users that are not logged into X will get a message explaining why they can't join your channel.

To set a mode type :
"/MODE #<channel>|<nickname> [+|-]modechars <parameters>".
Modechars are +m for example. See list above.
Parameters : for example 10 : +l 10 (set a limit of 10 users)



Banning and kicking

To kick someone :
"/kick #<channel> <nickname>"
Kicks named user off a given channel.

To ban someone:
"/mode #<channelname> +b <nickname> (or user address)

example: /mode #animals +b Jiminy
example: /mode #tree +b joe@bloggs.edu

To find out the user address of a user whois them.
"/whois <nick>"
This should give you something like this :

*** Patry is (patry@qc-undernet.org) * Mathieu Patry
*** Patry on: @#UserGuide +#mIRC
*** Patry using using *.undernet.org (The Undernet Underworld)
*** Patry is logged in as patry
*** Patry idle 12 secs signed on Sun Nov 13 13:26:53 2003
*** Patry End of /WHOIS

The host address is where my internet connection is hosted from. This usually shows what country you are from and what ISP you have: eg.

genesis@adsl-1445.turboline.skynet.be

genesis = UserId
adsl = Optional ISP stuff
1445.turboline = Usually defines where you are on your ISP's net
skynet = ISP. In this case Skynet
.be = Location (Belgium in this case)

Now to make a suitable user@host I'd take the UserId : genesis and add a wildcard eg *
*genesis* will also ban genesis01, 01Genesis, Tgenesis, GenesisT, etc.

A ban is made out of 3 parts "<Nick>!<UserId>@<host>"
Nick is usually replaced with a * to make sure if the user changes his nick he won't be able to get back in.
So to ban the previous example you'd have to do this :
(User@host = *!*genesis@*.turboline.skynet.be)

"/mode #<channel> +b *!*genesis@*.turboline.skynet.be"

So much for the basics of IRC. Let's got back to specific Undernet stuff ;-)


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6. Special channels on Undernet

The Undernet has formed a net of help channels in which users can seek assistance. One of the best known help channels is #irc_help.

Help channels:

*** #cservice : Help for the Undernet Channel Service
**  #UserGuide : general help
*   #mirc : mirc help
*   #linuxhelp : linux help
*   #networking : networking help
**  #nastrand : Oper help.
*   #vh : Virus help.

Note :
*** = Official undernet channel.
**  = Non-official channel : run by Undernet Staff
        (opers/csc admins/helpers).
*   = Non-official channel : NOT run by Undernet Staff (regular users).



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7. IRC Operators.

A group of people with loads of experience called IRC operators keeps the Undernet nice and running. They assist users who are getting abused by others , keep the servers connected and are capable of killing a user's connection to the IRC server (disconnecting him/her). You can recognise them when doing a whois by the following line :

*** Note: IRC Operator status

They also have the ability to K:line / G:line you and use Wallops.

K:line : Is a line set in the server config which prevents you from connecting/using that server.

G:line : Is a line which prevents you from connecting to ANY server on the net.

Wallops: Is used by opers to talk to eachother. To see wallops type "/mode <nick> +w"
Keep in mind though Undernet is about to prevent users from seeing wallops. So this may not work in the future.

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8. Abbreviations / IRC LINGO

Chatters use a different language while on IRC. They use a lot of abbreviations and smilies to show emotions.

A. Abbreviations

AFAIK     :     As Far As I Know
AFK     :     Away From Keyboard
BBL     :     Be Back Later
BRB     :     Be Right Back
BTW     :     By The Way
CYA     :     See Ya!
EG     :     Evil Grin
FYI     :     For Your Information
GTG     :     Got To Go
HAK     :     Hug And Kiss
IMHO     :     In My Humble Opinion
IMO     :     In My Opinion
IRL     :     In Real Life
JK     :     Just Kidding
LMAO     :     Laughing My Booty Off
LOL     :     Laughing Out Loud
LTNS     :     Long Time No See
ROFL     :     Rolling On the Floor Laughing
SUL     :     See You Later
THX     :     Thanks
TTYL     :     Talk To Ya Later
TY     :     Thank You
WEG     :     Wicked Evil Grin
WTG     :     Way to Go
XO     :     Hugs and Kisses
YW     :     Your Welcome


B. Emoticons

;o) or ;)                         wink
:-( or :(                         frown
:-) or :)                         smile
:D                         laughing
:*                         kss
:-|                         grim face
:X                         my lips are sealed


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9. The Undernet Channel Service.

The undernet provides it users a BOT to keep their channels open and protect them. This bot CANNOT be deopped and will always have ops. This service is free of charge. You can recognice the service by the nick X.

X is cservice@undernet.org * For help type: /msg X help

This bot has the ability to op ITSELF when it is not opped (something normal users cannot do). It will therefor always be opped. This bot is actually a program linking to the Undernet as a server.

The Undernet Channel service has a web interface which can be found at :

http://www.cservice.undernet.org/live .

The web interface is the only means of registering a USERNAME or a CHANNEL.
If you want to be added to the list of people who have access on a certain channel you need to have a username first. This is NOT nick registration. To register a username visit the following page : http://cservice.undernet.org/live/.
Before you can use X you need to login first.
Type :

"/MSG X@channels.undernet.org login <username> <pass>"

For a more detailed list of commands and levels see the cservice webpage.
Levels:
Every user in the channel access list of X has a level ranging from 0 to 500.

500 = Channel owner/manager. Only 1 person can have 500
450 - 499 = Trusted Channel admin.
400 - 449 = Userlist Admin
200 = Userlist Op
100 - 399 = Channel Operator
75 - 99 = New channel Operator.
50 - 74 = Trusted Channel Regular
25 - 49 = Channel Regular
1 - 24 = Minimum Access
0 = Everyone Else.

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10. Undernet's Nick Policy.

The Undernet does not offer nick registration services. Nicks belong to those who get them first. First come first serve. When a nick is in use choose another one and wait till it is free again. If someone claims you are using their nick you can easily say that there is NO such thing as nick ownership.

There are a few exceptions though:

1. Service nicks:
X, UWorld, etc. *
* W isn't a service anymore but it is still reserved by CService to prevent abuse.

2. Oper nicks.
It is preferred you do not use a known opers nick because that would tend towards impersonating an IRC Operator which is a BAD THING.

More information on how Undernet works and about Username and Channel Registration in our IRC network can be found HERE

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11. Servers.

1. Software.
The Undernet uses server software made by it's own Coders. (See committees). The Undernet Coder-com is a group of volunteers who in their free time code and develop the Undernet IRCdaemon.
Site : http://www.coder-com.undernet.org.

2. Routing.
The Undernet Routing Committee is responsible for the routing of servers. They try to prevent things like lag (see topic 11). See the Routing FAQ for more info.
Site : http://www.routing-com.undernet.org.

3. MOTD / Policies / Staff.

MOTD:
One of the main ways used by a server admin te spread news/policy changes to his users is the MOTD : The Message Of The Day. Users connecting to the server agree to the rules and Policies of the server and the Undernet. It is ADVISED to always read the motd every few days.(best = daily). To read the MOTD : Type /motd
Note : On some servers it displays itself when connecting. On others you will have to type it manually.

Policies:
Just like any other IRC network the Undernet has a set of rules users need to abide to. See the Undernet's AUP for our policies and rules.

Staff:
A list of the staff members for each committee can be found here: http://www.undernet.org/people.php

Technical Staff:
Every Undernet server has an ADMIN. He administrates the server and keeps it running. To assist the Admin in his task there are several IRC Operators.

The only way to become an IRC Operator:
1. Do not ask.
2. You are chosen for this job : You do not apply for it.
3. Try to help people and some day someone might notice you and offer you an O:line (Line with your host/pass so you can become an oper on that server)
4. Last option : Link a server (www.routing-com.undernet.org)

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12. Basic Routing

SERVER 1 = A (leaf server)
SERVER 2 = B (leaf server)
SERVER 3 = C (leaf server)
SERVER 4 = H (hub server)

The Undernet servers are connected in a Tree structure : No loops are possible.

 H - C
 / \
A B

The Hub server : Clients can't connect to this server. It is only used to link leaf servers. It acts like a gateway between several leaf servers.
The Leaf server : This server link to a HUB and allows clients to connect to it. These servers are used for chatting.

A ---- B ---- H ---- C
1s 2s 3s  

Suppose I type a message on C and you are on A.
The time it takes for a message from server C to get to server H is 1 second. The time it takes that same message to get from H to B is 2 seconds : So far the delay has been 3 seconds which means people on server B will see my message 3 seconds AFTER I typed it.
The time it takes my message to get from B to A is 3 seconds.
If we add to that the lag (time it takes for a message to reach you) between C and B : 3 + 3 = 6 seconds. People on server A will see my message 6 seconds after I typed it.

I TYPE ON SERVER C at 12:00 "Hello"
I SEE ON SERVER C at 12:00 "Hello"
I SEE ON SERVER H at 12:01 "Hello" (not applicable)
I SEE ON SERVER B at 12:03 "Hello"
I SEE ON SERVER A at 12:06 "Hello"


Netsplits:

A ---- B ---- H ---- C

When the connection between servers gets too lagged or just gets disconnected then a netsplit occur.

A -- X -- B ---- H ---- C (A gets disconnected from B)

People on servers B , H and C will see all people on server A disconnect.
People on server A will see all people on servers B, H and C disconnect.
When the connections gets reestablished everyone will see those that disconnected rejoin.


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13. Shell Guide.

What is a Shell Account?
=======================
To run an Eggdrop bot, you need a 'shell account'. A shell account is basically a personal account on a server that's connected to the Internet via a dedicated, high-speed connection. Shell accounts run the Unix operating system. You access the shell via telnet and FTP. The account provides you with space (usually around 5 MB to 30 MB for basic accounts) for storing files and running programs on the Unix machine. The most popular flavours of Unix you'll encounter with shell accounts are the Linux and FreeBSD operating systems. Unfortunately, unlike Eggdrop, shell accounts generally aren't free.
But since they're always connected to the Internet, shell accounts are the most popular and cost effective platform for hosting IRC bots. Shell accounts can also be used for other things, IRC-related and otherwise, such as running a bouncer, running your own IRC server, downloading files at high speed for temporary storage (until you're ready to download them to your machine), sending/receiving e-mail, and maintaining a web site. You don't have to be experienced with Unix in order to set up and maintain a bot on a shell account, but you will need to learn a few basic commands.

What can I *run* on a shell?
==============================
All the information you need can be found at: http://www.egghelp.org/shell.htm


Some helpful shell commands
==============================
-tar zxf <file> - Unzip your current file in a directory.
-cd <dir> - Go to a directory you chose on the shell.
-./configure - Trying to configure the program you have selected.
-make - Compile your program.
-make install - Install your program in the shell to be able to start this with the proper commands.
-./ircd or ./eggdrop -m eggdrop.conf - Start the selected program, (depends on the program, not all programs can be started like that, read the README).
-uptime - Displays the current uptime and server load.
-rm <file> - Deletes a file. To delete a directory and all its contents (including subdirectories), use
-rm -rf <directory>.
-kill -9 <pid> - Kills the process with the specified pid number. You can get the pid number of a process by using the ps x command described below. This command is useful for killing your Eggdrop if you're unable to shut it down by other means.

To have a full list of shell providers, you should go to http://www.egghelp.org/shells.htm and find a provider that has both good prices and offers good services. Be sure to check with the provider what applications you can and can't run on your shell *before* you pay.

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14. BNC

1. What is a BNC?

BNC is a great IRC proxying server under the GPL (General Public License). Bouncers have lots of advantages like the fact that they are able to use a host other than the one assigned by your Internet Service Provider (ISP). They also protect you from Denial-Of-Service (DoS) attacks. There are three kinds of BNC: BNC, ezBNC and the more known, the psyBNC.

1.1 Compiling BNC.

After you downloaded the BNC (http://www.shellcentral.com/downloads/bnc.html) and the tar file in your home directory, follow the instructions bellow:
tar -zxf bnc2.6.2.tar.gz
The BNC should have extracted into a directory so you should type:
cd bnc2.6.2
Now to configure the BNC type:
./configure
The configure script runs all its checks and tests based on your operating system. It takes only a few seconds. After it's finished you should type:
make
After it's all done compiling, you must now configure your BNC.

1.2 Configuring BNC.

Now that your bouncer is all compiled you need to edit a configuration file. Type:
pico bnc.conf
This will open a notepad type editor, a little bit like vi, which will enable you to edit all that you need to edit in order to make your bnc work perfectly. To move on this command, always use CTRL (replacing ^) and the letter chosen.
After configuring your BNC, you should be able to start it by using:
./bnc
Now your bouncer should be running and you should be able to connect to it.
In your Status, type:
/server host.from.the.box.com :port#
That will connect you to the bouncer. After that you will be asked for a password, so you should write it down. You'll see a list of commands wich are very useful. Enjoy your BNC!

2. What is ezBNC?

Ezbounce is a very configurable IRC proxy. Its basic features include password protection and remote administration. There are many more features, for example, users can configure their idle time limits, reload configuration at run time and also run in the background or foreground! However, it's less known.

2.1 Compiling ezBNC.

When you finished downloading the ezBNC
(http://mynet.daemon.sh/farking/ezbnc/src/ezbounce-0.99.12.tar.gz) and it is on your home directory, use the following commands:

First, type ./configure
Then use the "make" command.

Two other options with the ./configure script:

./configure --with-ssl[=/path/to/ssl
Configures ezbounce for SSL support (OpenSSL).

./configure --enable-debug
Builds ezbounce with debugging options turned ON.

2.2 Running ezBNC.

The syntax for running ezbounce is simple, type:
ezbounce [options] <configuration file>

Note that only the configuration file is required.

Ezbounce comes with two config files, one which is a barebones one (ezb.conf), and the other one which lists all the possible config options and descriptions (sample.conf).

3. What is psyBNC?

Why choose psyBNC? Because it enables your nick to remain connected to IRC, and still be on all the channels you left it, even after you close your IRC Client. Also, when you come back online, you can connect back to your nickname, and no one will even know that you left. PsyBNC can also hide your IP address by using a vhost such as "I.am.leet.com".

3.1 Compiling psyBNC.

After you downloaded the psyBNC (http://www.psychoid.lam3rz.de/psyBNC2.2.1.tar.gz), uploaded it to your home directory, follow the instructions bellow:
tar -zxvf psyBNC2.2.1.tar.gz
The psyBNC should have extracted into a directory so you would type:
cd psybnc
After, make the menu config by using:
make menuconfig
Then use:
make

3.2 Configuring psyBNC.

Now that your psyBNC is compiled, you can now configure it, use:
pico psybnc.conf
Just change the port number and exit (CTRL X).
You are now ready to run your psyBNC by typing:
./psybnc
You'll see something like:
[root@patry psybnc]$ ./psybnc
.-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-.
,----.,----.,-. ,-.,---.,--. ,-.,----.
| O || ,-' \ \/ / | o || \| || ,--'
| _/ _\ \ \ / | o< | |\ || |__
|_| |____/ |__| |___||_| \_| \___|
Version 2.3.1 (c) 1999-2002
the most psychoid
and the cool lam3rz Group IRCnet

`-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=tCl=-'
Configuration File: psybnc.conf
Language File: psyBNC Language File - English
No logfile specified, logging to log/psybnc.log
Listening on: 0.0.0.0 port <port_number>
Listening on: * port <port_number>
psyBNC2.2.1-cBtITLdDMSNpE started (PID number)
[root@patry psybnc]$

3.3 Connecting to the IRC.

Now that the psyBNC is configured and running on your shell, open an IRC client and type:
/server host.from.the.box.com:port#
You'll have to write a password. Habitually, the password is the one from your shell account, and then type:
/quote pass your_password
Commands will be listing, you only have now to use them and enjoy your psyBNC!

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15. Scripts.

Supposing you know quite close to nothing about mIRC Scripts and how they run, this should help you better understand them. I know you have probably heard of people using scripts, and saying that they can do some things that you can't. That is not true, scripts only let you do automated things, but things that can be done if not using a script (like using colors for typing, noticing people when they have said your nick and so on, all commands that can be done with no script at all). Of course, using a GOOD script makes a lot of things easier, and faster. But this is what you should look out for:
- If you do decide to use a script, you should first be very careful where you download or otherwise get it from, seeing as some scripts can contain viruses or other hazardouse bugs.
- If you do not fully understand everything that the script does (automatically) you should not use it, because you can't really be sure how it will react to different things. Knowing what the script can do would require that you know at least some basic scripting and see what is in the remote.ini file and understand what all those lines do.

The 2 bests scripts I can recommend are mIRC (pure and unaltered) OR a script that you make yourself, and thus you know exactly what it is capable of.
A. To use mIRC, just download it from http://www.mirc.co.uk/get.html, install it and set up the options to better suit your needs and that is it.
B. To make your very own script first read /help remote and be sure to read everything there. Then you can start testing on your own mIRC. Also visit the many live Undernet scripting channels like #mirc-scripts or #mircscripts, or use the "/list script" command to look for other scripting channels.

Also visit these URLs:

- http://www.mircscripts.com
- http://www.hawkee.com
- http://www.mircscripts.org
- http://www.mirc-egg.net

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16. Bots.

1. What's a bot?

Bot is short for robot and is a term widely used in the computer world. They can be anything from IRC bots to bots for computer games. IRC bots are nothing more than scripts connected to IRC, that react to certain commands, such as login, op or ban. As well as scripts, bots have no more power or access to other IRC commands then any other users, it's just that they do it all automated.
IRC bots differ, there are various variants, but the most common are eggdrops (or eggies). These bots are scripts running on usually permanent connections and thus staying connected to IRC 24 hours/day, 7 days/week. Of course this does not mean that you can't run a bot from your own not-permanent connection (e.g. dial-up), but there is really no point to this, seeing as they will disconnect as soon as you do.
Bots are usually run from shells (which are accounts on Linux servers) which you pay for.

2. What can I use one for?

Bots have different purposes on IRC, but the most common is that of having someone there non-stop to protect channels (from losing ops, to automaticaly kick flooders etc.). They also serve for:
- Playing trivia - A sort of quiz, the bot asks questions and waits for a correct answer, then scores the user (more or less); usually general knowladge questions.
- Nick keepers - Bots that are scripted in such a manner that they change their nick to the owner's nickname when it becomes available so that it will not be used by someone else.
- Trading - Bots that have scripts that permit sharing files through DCC with commands such as !get. These bots are usually run from ilegal accounts, seeing as not many shell admins like all that traffic being made. They usually trade mp3's or movie files, but can sometimes send other types of software (cracks, patches).
- Flooding - One or more bots linked together forming a floodnet, used for mass messaging or CTCPing users or channels. Also used for join/part floods. Such bots/botnets are prohibited on Undernet as well as many other IRC Networks.

3. How do I get a bot?

Well, you can either rent a shell and run the bot from there (See Shells) or ask to be given one (borrow it). Borrowing bots is very dangerous and NOT RECOMMENDED. Opping a bot in your channel to which other users have access to means that the channel can be taken away from you at any given time.
If you can't rent an account or don't have a permanent connection, the best bot to "borrow" is X, which is the offical Channel Service bot. This bot can not be deopped or kicked, and will op itself if it disconnects and comes back. Getting X on your channel means that it will be fully protected from losing ops. For more details be sure to visit http://cservice.undernet.org or pay us a live visit in #CService.
If you are interested in having X in your channel, you might want to get protected during the registration process. #UserService - http://www.userservice.org rent bots for this purpose.

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17. DCC

1. What is DCC?

DCC (Direct Client-to-Client) uses direct TCP connections between the clients taking part to carry data. There is no flood control, so packets can be sent at full speed, and there is no dependance on server links (or the load imposed on them).

1.1 DCC connections.

CHAT: Carrying a secure conversation between two users.
SEND: Sending a file to the recipient.

SYNTAX: /DCC [CHAT|SEND] <nickname>

1.2 CHAT.

If someone sends you a chat request, by default, mIRC will open a dialog asking you if you would like to accept the chat request. However you can make mIRC automatically accept the chat request, or just ignore all incoming chat requests.
To modify options on mIRC, press Alt+O and then DCC.

1.3 SEND.

If someone tries to send you a file, by default, mIRC will open a dialog asking you if you want to accept the file. However if you select the "Auto-get file" option then mIRC will automatically accept the file. If you select "Ignore All" then all incoming DCC send requests are ignored.
When it's time to choose in the menu, think about the dangers of accepting files on IRC first. If you aren't sure, click on "Ignore". If you want to accept, just click on Accept.

2. Time-out in Seconds.

When a user sends you a Send or Chat request, a dialog opens and waits for you to accept or ignore. The Get/Chat Dialog time out value determines how long the dialog will wait for your reply before it closes.

3. DCC Ports

This option allows you to specify the range of ports that mIRC will use when making DCC connections.
PORTS: 1024 to 5000 (64000 in few systems)

4. Fixing DCC problems.

DCC problems can occurt because your current IP (Internet Protocol) is wrong. To solve this problem:
1- Press Alt+O, go to Connect, then Local Info.
2- Erase your current "Local Host:" and "IP Address:" and leave the boxes empty.
3- Mark "Local Host" when it's written "On connect, always get:".
4- Mark "Server" when it's written "Lookup method:".
5- Disconnect from your server and connect back.
If it's still not working, you should look up these methods:

4.1 DCC with Windows XP Firewall.

The first step is to right click "My Network Places", then select properties, right click your connection, select properties and then, the advanced tab, or simply disable XP's built-in firewall by right-clicking your connection, left-clicking the advanced tab, and unchecking the box from Inernet Connection Firewall.

If you wish to keep your firewall enabled, then you should configure it for DCCs like this: Right click your connection, advanced tab, Settings, Add, and:

Description of service: DCC1
Name or IP address: your IP address
External Port: 4000
Internal Port: 4000
Select TCP

Repeat the second step adding 1 to DCC and ports until you have made 5 entries then click on Ok.
Last step, open your mirc.exe, type Alt+O, click on DCC then Options and enter:
First: 4000
Last: 4004
under DCC ports and click on Ok.

4.2 Dynamic IP.

If you have dynamic IP (your IP address is different each time you connect to your ISP), make sure that "On connect, always get:" in the File, Setup, Local Info dialog is set to get the Local Host and IP Address. If these were already set to ON make sure the correct "Local Host" name and "IP Address" are found by mIRC.

4.3 Other things that may not allow you to DCC:

A) Having ADSL, due to the firewalls of the ISP
B) Being on a LAN (Local Area Network)
C) Running some other sort of firewall than XP's
D) Being connected through a psyBNC

5. Conclusion.

Sharing files on IRC is very funny but be careful, sometimes you can get very bad surprises. I suggest you follow these tricks:

1- Only accept files from someone you know or trust.
2- Do no accept .BAT, .COM, .DLL and .EXE extension files.
4- Sharing copyright material is illegal so please don't search for it.
5- If you have a anti-virus program, you should scan the files before opening them.

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18. Etiquette.

IRC stands for Internet Relay Chat and is a dynamic multi-user chat system. It was written in 1988 by Jarkko Oikarinen. People that join IRC networks can either chat privately or join groups of people and talk all together (in channels). People who wish to connect to an IRC network need a good IRC client (mIRC is the most popular IRC client for Windows) which they will use to connect to a server. A network can have one or more interconnected servers. Users connected to one server can talk to users connected to a different server of the same network. There is no limitation about how many users a network can have, how many channels or how many users a channel can have. There are hundreds of IRC networks out there, but there are only a few huge ones (50,000+ users):
-IRCNet;
-DALnet;
-EFNet;
-Undernet;
-QuakeNet.
Each of these networks has lots of servers connected together, but the best idea is for you to connect to the server that is closest to you geographically (which will be faster). Though most networks have the same rules and regulations, I will intend to explain only those of Undernet.
Before you connect you will need to specify a nickname. Undernet accepts nicknames up to 9 characters long, and there can not be the same nickname used more then once at the same time (duh :=)). This is the "name" other users will see you by. You are not obliged to use you real name, but my advice is not to use any obscene words as nicknames either, they only cause loads of problems.
There has always been a problem when your nickname is in use by another person. Undernet has no NickServ or other such nick registration services, thus nicknames are not owned by anyone. This does not only mean that you can use other users' nicks with them not being able to argue, but it means that if someone uses your nickname, you will just have to accept it.
Ok, assuming that you have chosen a nickname, and are now connected, how do you behave? Well, the best advice is to behave as you would in real life, with a few minor specifications. One is not to type every word in a new line, as you would say them in real life maybe, because this is truly annoying, and can get you banned from channels for flooding. You should also try to make your statements clear, because there is no intonation on IRC and no tone of voice, so things may easily be misinterpreted.
Remember, IRC is just about people, and you should act accordingly. Be friendly to everyone, don't be rude, don't swear without just cause, be polite to both people you know and you don't know, and respect channel ops. Since you would like your wishes to be respected, you should learn to respect other users' wishes as well. For instance, if someone doesn't want to have anything to do with you, you should leave it at that, and not try to follow him and annoy him.
When joining a channel, you should look out for the topic, and any channel rules that you can find. It is important to respect the rules of a channel if you want to have a pleasant chat.
Also, if you are banned from a channel you should really not make a big deal out of it and you shouldn't try to get back in. The reason they banned you in the first place is that they don't want you in there so they probably will ban you again. You should respect their desires.
On IRC you have few rights. For instance, you do not have the right to be in a channel, channel ops can kick and ban anyone for any reason or for no reason at all, if they so desire.
Of course, this means that if you have your own channel, you can kick ban anyone as well. However, if you op the wrong people they may steal your channel from you, in that case you should seek the help of an IRC Operator, but if no one will/can help you, and the people who stole your channel don't give up, you should think of creating a new channel, and forgetting about the old one.

It is very important to know when not to fight things, and this brings us to our last topic. What to do if you are stalked/attacked.
If you have "fans" on IRC, you should really not talk to them at all, /ignore them, not think of them, act as they were not there, and if they join the same channels as you, you should report them to a channel operator, and he will do what he sees fit. Being a jerk to them, swearing, or otherwise annoying them will not help. Eventually, they will get bored.

And if you are flooded? Well, if you are flooded on IRC (via CTCP/MSG/JOIN whatever) you should add the respective user(s) to your ignore list. If they flood you off of IRC (nuke, packets of other kinds) you should get a good firewall, and report the user to his ISP. One rule with an importance too great to stress is not to fight back. There are two reasons not to:
1) If someone floods you, most probably you think that he is a bad person, and think ugly thoughts about him. You also most probably despise him. Now, if you were to flood him back, he would be able to say the same things about you, and you would be nothing more then what he is. Pretty sad, don’t you think?
2) A more pragmatic reason is the fact that if you flood him back, you can no longer report him to an IRC Operator or to his ISP, without risking your own floods to be discovered. It is never good to be thought of a as a flooder.

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19. Cookies Troubleshooting.

Cookies are temporary pieces of information which stored as text files on your hard drive by web servers that you connect to. They can only be accessed by the website that set them, and they can't be used to interrogate your hard drive or transmit viruses. For added security, your password is only stored for a period of two hours. The cookie is present so that the next time you visit the site, you do not have to enter your username and password again. The cookie does not contain any otherpersonal information, other than that outlined above. It can be deleted at the end of your session if you prefer, by setting the appropriate option in your forum profile. Cookies give Web site operators the ability to store information on your hard disk about you and your visit. The cookies record your personal preferences, selections you've made, or any other personal information that you've entered in forms. Cookies were established as a convenience, enabling you to return to a Web site, receive a personalized greeting, and find all your preferences instituted. The Web site reads your cookie and puts all your customized settings in place. But cookies can also be used to track you on line, and they allow those who create web sites to create a profile about you without your realizing it. Whether you choose to accept cookies or universally reject them is up to you. But if you reject cookies, you'll be trading convenience for privacy on the odd chance that a Web site has malicious intent. Remember, cookies can store only the information that you've entered about yourself at a Web site, so you might want to focus your efforts on being cautious about the information you choose to reveal.

Internet Explorer:
To view or modify cookies settings in INTERNET EXPLORER 5.X click "Internet Options" on the "Tools" menu, and then click the "Security" tab. Click the Web content zone you want, and then click "Custom Level". Under "Cookies", click the options you want, click OK, and then click OK.
You can set custom cookies settings for each security zone. To do so click "Internet Options" on the "Tools" menu, and then click the "Security" tab. Click the Web content zone you want, and then click "Custom Level". Under "Cookies", click the options you want, click OK, and then repeat steps 1 through 2 for each zone.

NOTE: Session cookies are deleted when you quit Internet Explorer. Persistent cookies remain on your computer. To customize settings for persistent cookies click "Internet Options" on the "Tools" menu, and then click the "Security" tab. Click the Web content zone you want, and then click "Custom Level". Under "Cookies", click the option you want to use under Allow cookies that are stored on your computer, click OK, and then click OK. To customize settings for session cookies click "Internet Options" on the "Tools" menu, and then click the "Security" tab. Click the Web content zone you want, and then click "Custom Level". Under "Cookies", click the option you want under Allow Per-session Cookies (Not Stored), click OK, and then click OK.

INTERNET EXPLORER 6 implements advanced cookie filtering based on the Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P) specification. After you upgrade from an earlier version of Microsoft Internet Explorer to Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 or Microsoft Windows XP, your cookies settings are not retained as expected. This issue occurs because cookie settings, which are configured on the "Security" tab of "Internet Options" in Internet Explorer 4 and 5 (or on the "Advanced" tab in Internet Explorer 3), are removed when you upgrade to Internet Explorer 6. A new "Privacy" tab has been added to the "Internet Options" dialog box to configure cookie settings for the Internet zone. You can configure your privacy settings in Internet Explorer 6 by clicking "Internet Options" on the "Tools" menu, and then clicking the "Privacy" tab.
These settings replace the cookies settings on the "Security" tab in Internet Explorer 4 and 5 (and the "Advanced" tab in Internet Explorer 3). The "Privacy" settings slider has six settings: - "Block All Cookies": Cookies from all Web sites will be blocked, and existing cookies on your computer cannot be read by the Web sites that created them. - "High": Blocks cookies that do not have a compact privacy policy or that have a compact privacy policy which specifies that personally identifiable information is used without your explicit consent. Cookies that were already on your computer before you installed Internet Explorer 6 are leashed - "Medium High": Blocks third-party cookies that do not have a compact privacy policy or that use personally identifiable information without your explicit consent. Blocks first-party cookies that have a compact privacy policy which specifies that personally identifiable information is used without your implicit consent. First-party cookies that do not have a compact privacy policy and cookies that were already on your computer before you installed Internet Explorer 6 are leashed (restricted so that they can only be read in the first-party context).
- "Medium" (default level): Blocks third-party cookies that do not have a compact privacy policy or that have a compact privacy policy which specifies that personally identifiable information is used without your implicit consent.
- "Low": First-party cookies that do not have a compact privacy policy are leashed (restricted so that they can only be read in the first-party context). Cookies that were already on your computer before you installed Internet Explorer 6 are also leashed. Third-party cookies that do not have a compact privacy policy or that have a compact privacy policy which specifies that personally identifiable information is used without your implicit consent are downgraded (deleted when you close Internet Explorer).
- "Accept All Cookies": All cookies will be saved on your computer, and existing cookies on your computer can be read by the Web sites that created them.

NOTE: Changing your privacy preferences does not affect the cookie acceptance policy for cookies that have already been set unless you move the slider to "Accept All Cookies" or "Block All Cookies". Internet Explorer displays a Privacy dialog box the first time a cookie is restricted based on your privacy preferences. This dialog box is displayed only once unless you clear the "Don't show this message again" check box. The "Privacy" dialog box explains that a new status icon (the "Privacy Report" icon) is placed in the status bar when you visit a Web site that does not meet your privacy preferences. You can double-click this icon to view a privacy report that explains how the Web site has either privacy practices that conflict with your preferences or has no published privacy policy. You can also view a privacy report for any site by clicking "Privacy Report" on the "View" menu.

NOTE: The Privacy slider is designed to work only in the Internet zone.
All cookies are automatically accepted from Web sites in both the Local Intranet and Trusted zones, and all cookies are automatically blocked from Web sites in the Restricted zone.
You also have the option to define cookie management practices on a per-site basis. This overrides your default privacy preferences set with the slider for any sites that you add to the "Per Site Privacy Actions" dialog box, unless you move the slider to "Accept All Cookies" or "Block all Cookies".

Netscape:
In NETSCAPE 3, you can set your cookie option by clicking "Options" on the Netscape menu bar and selecting "Network preferences". Then, in the "Protocols" tab click on the "Accepting a cookie" check box to remove or add the check mark.
In NETSCAPE 4.X pull down the "Edit" menu near the upper left corner of the window and select "Preferences...". Then, in the "Preferences" window that appears, click once on the word "Advanced". In NETSCAPE 6 pull down "Privacy&Security", "Cookies" instead of "Advanced". Make sure that you have selected one of the options to accept cookies. If you select "Disable cookies", you will not be able to use many applications. When you have specified the desired configuration, click "OK" at the bottom of the "Preferences" window.

Opera:
Opera supports the exact same format for setting cookies as Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. This means that Opera will be able to accept all cookies that work with these browsers. Cookies are stored in the file named cookies4.dat located in the main Opera directory (usually C:\Program Files\Opera). It is not possible to edit the file cookies4.dat by hand in order to remove unwanted cookies from your hard drive, but you can download the Opera File Explorer and use this tool to view your cookies. If you received the message that your browser doesn't support cookies, and you have cookies enabled in Preferences > Privacy the reason for this is that the server sending you the cookies looks for either Internet Explorer or Netscape Communicator, and doesn't send you the cookie because it does not recognize Opera. Unfortunately, there's nothing to do since Opera is not one of these browsers. However, you might want to try e-mailing the Webmaster of the site.

In the end I would like to quote Scott McNealy from Sun Microsystems which words were : "You have zero privacy anyway".

-- Tutorial written by Danny (Windu @ IRC) and Vlad (`Dj @ IRC) --

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20. Sites.

The main Undernet site is
http://www.undernet.org

GNUWorld, an IRC operator services server site is
http://www.coder-com.undernet.org

Official CService site is
http://cservice.undernet.org

User-Com site is
http://www.user-com.undernet.org

Routing-Com site is
http://www.routing-com.undernet.org

Coder-Com site is
http://www.coder-com.undernet.org

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